This month we’ve gone “back to school” with lessons related to GFLF’s core services. I’m glad the title didn’t scare you away, because, let’s be honest, economics class was always a little intimidating. But, fear not! The economics of charitable gifts of life insurance are easy to understand because it means mutual benefits for both you, as the donor, and your fave charity.

It may sound weird at first, but making a charitable donation of your life insurance policy can make for a valuable, tax-wise gift. Plus, there are multiple ways to successfully make a gift of life insurance fit in with your charitable giving goals.

A donor can:

  1. Make a lifetime gift of a life insurance policy;
  2. Name a charity as the beneficiary of a life insurance policy death benefit; and/or,
  3. Take donations that would have made to the favorite charity, use this money to pay premiums toward a life insurance policy, and ultimately leverage the cash into a much larger gift.

Lifetime Gift of Policy

A donor can transfer ownership of a life insurance policy to charity during lifetime. To accomplish the transfer, the donor must complete a change of ownership form that is typically available from the insurance company.

If the policy is not paid-up, the charity will need to maintain the policy until the insured individual’s death to receive the policy benefit. A charity may request that a donor make additional cash gift to cover the ongoing premium payments.

A donor will be making an immediate charitable contribution equal to the fair market value of the policy at the time of transfer. If the donor is taking a federal charitable income tax deduction of $5,000 or more, the donor must obtain a qualified appraisal by a qualified appraiser.

life is short do stuff that matters

Life Insurance Death Benefit

A beneficiary designation is used to specify who the beneficiary of the life insurance policy will be. A beneficiary designation is usually revocable during the donor’s lifetime and it becomes irrevocable at death. A gift specified in a beneficiary designation will not come into effect until the insured individual’s death.

Form of Gift

A donor can specify that a charity will receive a percentage of the total death benefit (e.g., 5% of the total death benefit) or a specific dollar amount.

Tax Consequences

A life insurance policy that is owned by the donor will usually be included in his or her estate for estate tax purposes.  The donor will receive an estate tax charitable deduction for amounts that are transferred to charity at death, saving federal estate taxes. (Admittedly, a tiny percentage of Americans are wealthy enough to even have to worry about estate taxes).

A Great Planning Opportunity!

A gift of life insurance may allow a donor to leverage available cash to provide a more significant gift to charity than might otherwise be available. For example, a donor might pay $5,000 a year in premiums to purchase a $300,000 life insurance policy that benefits charity. In this situation, the donor’s charitable gift may be far greater by purchasing an insurance policy than if he or she contributed the $5,000 cash to charity each year.

Classic Example

A gift of a life insurance policy can be a good fit for donors who have existing policies that are no longer needed. The classic scenario would be policies purchased while kids were little, as time goes by, now donor has sufficient other assets to provide for children, or children are now adults and no longer require financial help in the event of the death of a parent.

Let’s Talk About How to Make This Giving Option Work For You!

Everyone’s financial, tax, estate planning, and charitable giving situation is unique. It’s highly recommended you consult with an estate planner and/or charitable giving expert so you don’t hit any accidental pitfalls! I offer a free one-hour consult, so don’t hesitate to contact me to get your smart tax-wise gift happen.

Did anyone sit in the very back row of their high school calculus class, slumped over, the brim of their baseball cap lowered, hoping to become invisible? I’m asking for a friend, of course. The chalk marks on the board—a series of numbers—may as well have been Mandarin Chinese to me. The teacher was no help, he spit numbers faster than a rapper and made less sense than the chalk marks. My “friend” understood nothing but somehow passed by the skin of his teeth. Law school was suddenly a sure destination (or, really, any school without math).

Back to school

Even Worse: College Math!

However, you needed an undergraduate degree before law school. (Ok…we’re talking about me, not my friend.) Thanks to the aforementioned miracle of passing calculus, my major at Iowa only required one math for graduation, at least at the time. That class was 22M-One, which was literally known on campus as 22M-Dumb. Still, I had to take the class twice. During the first try, halfway through the final exam, my friend got up, left his paper, and simply walked out. He knew he would flunk, so why torture himself or waste anyone else’s time? He barely passed the second time, and only did so after extensive tutoring.

Just curious, anyone have “math phobia” as bad as young me? This school daze story has a happy ending though. Eventually, I got past my major fear of math and was able to master the rules of math, especially as they relate to estate planning.

This Math Makes Sense

I know someone in your life (probably an engineer or actuary) has undoubtedly told you that math is fun and easy. But, when it comes to the IRA Charitable Rollover (AKA qualified charitable distribution (QCD)), this small bit of math really is!

You only need to remember six numbers:

  • 70.5 (years)
  • $100,000
  • 1 (as in one plan)
  • Zero (as in taxes owed if you do this right)
  • Zero again (as in, zero gifts in return);
  • 100% (every time I write about the IRA Charitable Rollover, I always get a certain response).

70.5 years of age

There are two threshold requirements to take advantage of a special provision known as the IRA Charitable Rollover. The first is that to be eligible you must be 70.5 years of age or older. An important nuance to note is the required annual distribution is based on the year the participant reaches age 70.5, not the day they reach that age.

The second threshold requirement is the IRA Charitable Rollover applies to IRAs only. Under the law, charitable gifts can only be made from traditional IRAs or Roth IRAs. The IRA Charitable Rollover does not apply to 403(b) plans, 401(k) plans, pension plans, and other retirement benefit plans. (I’ll discuss another great option, however, for these other retirement benefit plans, so be sure to read to the end of this blog post).

equation on a chalkboard

$100,000

Sure, living to 70.5 is great in itself, but it’s also the age where IRA Charitable Rollover allows individuals to donate up to $100,000 from their IRAs directly to a charity, without having to count the distributions as taxable income.

One Plan

A donor’s total combined charitable IRA rollover contributions cannot exceed $100,000 in any one year. The limit is per IRA owner, not per individual IRA account. Also, this amount is not portable (i.e., sharable) between spouses.

Zero (as in Zero Taxes)

The IRA Charitable Rollover permits taxpayers to make donations directly to charitable organizations from their IRAs without counting this money as part of their adjusted gross income (AGI). Consequently, this means not paying any taxes on them. You read that correctly: folks who are 70.5 years or older are able to transfer donations from their IRA directly to charity, up to $100,000, with ZERO taxes on that money!

What charities/nonprofits are eligible to receive the donation(s)?

Charitable contributions from an IRA must go directly to a qualified public charity. Contributions to donor-advised funds and private foundations, except in certain (narrow) circumstances, do not qualify for tax-free IRA rollover contributions.

Allow me to emphasize the gift must go directly to the charity. A donor cannot withdraw the money, and then give it to charity. Rather, the IRA administrator must send the donation straight to the charity.

Zero (as in gifts/services back from charity)

Donors cannot receive any goods or services in return for IRA Charitable Rollover amounts in order to qualify for tax-free treatment. As one philanthropist explained, “Why would you want to (potentially) mess up a $100,000 tax-free donation by getting a $25 tote bag?” No matter how good the bag looks, it’s not worth that!

70.5 years of age and IRAs only

Once again, to be eligible you must be 70.5 years or older. Also, qualifying gifts can only be made from traditional IRAs or Roth IRAs. Charitable donations from 403(b) plans, 401(k) plans, pension plans, and other retirement plans are not covered by the IRA Charitable Rollover law.

100%

Every time I write about the IRA Charitable Rollover, I receive communication from someone saying that life sucks because they don’t qualify for the Rollover. They aren’t 70.5 years old, or they have a different retirement benefit plan than an IRA, or both.

But, here’s the thing, anyone can still use their retirement benefit plan(s) to help their favorite charities.

Magic of Beneficiary Designations

No matter what your age, or what your type of retirement benefit plan (IRA, 401(k), 403(b), etc.), there is a super-easy way for you to help your favorite charity. Simply contact the account holder and name your favorite nonprofit as a beneficiary! This is so simple. No lawyer or drafting of legal documents is required—the owner of the retirement benefit plan simply has to direct the account holder to change the beneficiary. There are also no taxes with this charitable giving approach because, frankly, when the donation passes to the charity it’s because you’re dead. No taxes for the nonprofit either; as a qualified nonprofit, they don’t pay taxes on donations.

Note that if the account owner is married, the spouse should be informed and may need to consent to the designation. And, please follow up with the account holder to make sure the account holder received your request and made the beneficiary changes properly in full.

Want to work through how the IRA Charitable Rollover math fits in with your planned giving goals and current/future tax strategy? Reach out to me anytime. I offer a free, no-obligation one-hour consultation. You can contact me by email (gordon@gordonfischerlawfirm.com) or on my cell (515-371-6077).

September calendar

Recently my social media feeds were alight with friends and family member’s grinning kiddos holding signs announcing their first day of a new grade. It made me nostalgic! While I wouldn’t want to repeat law school all over again, I do think it’s never too late to head back to the classroom—proverbial or real. So, the GFLF is heading back to school with lessons in English (like legal words/phrases of the day), reading (GoFisch book club) history, finance and the like. Today’s lesson on planned giving crosses over between business and economics, and it’s super important for donors of all gift amounts and nonprofit pros alike.

Back to school

What is planned giving?

Planned giving is the process of charitably donating planned gifts. A planned gift is a charitable donation that is arranged in the present and allocated at a future date. A planned gift is often, but not always, donated through a will or trust. (I would say this is true 80-90% of the time; put another way, planned gifts are bequests 80-90% of the time). As such, planned gifts are very often granted after the donor’s death.

Besides charitable gifts made through wills and trusts after death, other planned gifts include charitable gift annuities; charitable remainder trusts (along with the entire alphabet soup of CRATS; CRUTS; NIMCRUTS; FLIPCRUTS; etc.); charitable lead trusts, and remainder interest/life estates in real property. All these gifting tools/techniques/vehicles I’ve discussed previously, sometimes numerous times.

What is a Nonprofit?

  • You give $20 to a person you meet on the street who lost his bus ticket home.
  • At your local gas station, there is a collection jar for a local child with leukemia. You donate your change.
  • You leave money in your will for your niece Jane, hoping she uses it to continue her collegiate studies in engineering.
  • You have a neighbor who suffers from dementia. You and your friends decide to have an informal walk to raise awareness about the disease and raise money for your neighbor’s health care needs.

While noble, these are not examples of “charitable giving,” as we use the term here. In this context, we are talking about charitable giving to an organization formed under 501c3 of the Internal Revenue Service Tax Code. A 501c3 agency can be known by several terms in general usage, including “nonprofit organization” and “public charity.” For simplicity’s sake, we’ll use the term nonprofit throughout.

Nonprofits cover an extremely broad swath of types of organizations, including schools, churches, hospitals, museums, social services organizations, animal welfare groups, and community foundations.

Nonprofits Must Embrace Planned Gifts

Sometimes nonprofits are overwhelmed at the thought of expansive planned giving because of the number and complexity of some of the planned giving vehicles. How does this match up when you want to donate a less obvious gift than cash, such as stocks and bonds or grain? Nonprofits need to expand their ability to accept gifts of many varieties for at least three reasons:

Craft Beer Factor

The first reason I call the “craft beer factor.” (Bear with me here for a moment). I’m old enough to remember when there were just two kinds of beer. Don’t believe me? You should, as it was immortalized in one of the most famous advertising campaigns of all time–“tastes great, less filling!” This ad campaign strongly implied there were really just two types of beers.

craft beer on table

Then came the craft beer movement. I’m not sure whether craft beers were a response to consumers, or whether craft beers created a demand; presumably both. In any case, now a place like Toppling Goliath Brewing Company in Decorah, Iowa, has about thirty varieties of beers (this is based on an informal count from their website).

Now any retail establishment which sells beer must offer lots and lots of different kinds of beer. Any retail establishment which isn’t able to offer its customers wide variety risks irrelevance, or worse.

This is true not just of beer, but of everything. Another quick example– McDonald’s has around 145 menu items, that’s up from about 85 items in 2007. Also, McDonald’s now offers breakfast items not just in the morning, but all day-long.

Consumers want what they want, when they want, how they want.

Donors expect and often demand the opportunity to use many different options to assist their favorite charities. No longer can nonprofits simply ask folks to pony up cash, or just accept credit cards. Donors want to be able to converse with their fave charity and discuss using their whole portfolio. Nonprofits need to be able to accept, and intelligently discuss, gifting of many different types of non-cash assets.

A nonprofit which doesn’t offer its supporters a wide variety of giving options risks irrelevance, or even worse fates! So, as a donor, if you’re interested in donating an asset that your favorite nonprofit doesn’t typically facilitate, connect them with an experienced nonprofit attorney to make the gift a reality.

Planned Gifts Consist Overwhelmingly of Bequests

Second, planned giving is still mostly about wills and trusts. As already stated, I estimate 80-90% of planned gifts are bequests. Simple! Nonprofits should put substantial efforts to encouraging increased, larger testamentary bequests. Donors who already have an estate plan, but didn’t realize they could designate their favorite organizations as beneficiaries should contact an estate planning attorney.

Everyone can Understand Planned Giving!

Be it strategies for a monthly giving program or facilitating complex planned giving vehicles like NIMCRUTs, the opportunities for continuous learning about different planned giving technique are seemingly endless! And, there are so many different options, that all donors should feel great about supporting their fave causes with tax-wise gifts that work best for them. I strive to offer free information that breaks down different aspects of planned giving in human terms, as well as promoting community opportunities/events for nonprofit professionals.

heart on blue wood

Still need help understanding planned giving or any particular tool or technique? Want assistance coordinating a complex gift? Reach out to me anytime. I offer a free one-hour consultation to anyone and everyone. You can contact at my email (gordon@gordonfischerlawfirm.com) or on my cell (515-371-6077). I’d truly love to hear from you.

planned gift pink bow

A planned gift is literally what is sounds like. Sort of. The term refers to the process of creating a charitable bequest now that will take effect later. In other words, during your lifetime you plan for a gift that will be given a future date—usually at or upon your death. A planned gift is best accomplished as part of an overall estate plan and it is usually delivered through a will or trust.

While you can make provisions to give a specific dollar amount, there are many different types of planned gifts. You can make a planned gift of real estate, life insurance, and retirement plans, or tangible property (such as artwork). You can also remember organizations with planned gifts of charitable remainder annuity trusts (CRATs), charitable remainder unitrusts (CRUTs), Net Income with Makeup Charitable Remainder Unitrusts (NIMCRUTs), FlipCRUTs.

For now, let’s go over exactly what planned giving is; the benefits of planned giving; the kinds of charities you need to consider when making a planned gift; and the kinds of gifts that qualify for a tax deduction.

Who gives? Donors and benefactors

In July 2018, Warren Buffet donated about $3.4 billion to five charities, including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation—itself headed by the country’s most generous philanthropic couple who gave it $4.8 billion. Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg and his wife, Priscilla Chan, donated $1 billion to their charitable foundation.

It’s fun to read about the super-rich and their bountiful bequests, but you don’t have to be a modern-day Rockefeller or a member of the one percent to donate to charity or create a planned gift. Indeed, ordinary people with ordinary means can bequeath gifts that make an extraordinary difference.

In 2016, a legal secretary in Brooklyn, New York, who had worked at the same law firm for 67 years, bequeathed $8.2 million to, among others, New York City’s Henry Street Settlement and Hunter College to help disadvantaged students. Sylvia Bloom, who worked until she was 96 years old, saved her fortune through frugal living and savvy investing.

People make planned gifts for any number of reasons:

  • Streamline estate planning and closing;
  • Make a meaningful contribution to a cause or organization that reflects their beliefs and values;
  • Create a legacy that will have lasting impact into the future;
  • Gain income and tax benefits.

There are three types of planned gifts:

  • Outright gifts that use assets instead of cash;
  • Gifts that return income or other financial benefits to you in return for a contribution;
  • Gifts payable upon your death.

Who receives? Planned giving beneficiaries

Organizations love planned gifts. After what are known as “major gifts”—the six-figure endowment, the priceless Old Master painting, the stretch of valuable coastline—planned giving makes up the largest chunk of donations a nonprofit receives. Planned giving helps nonprofits weather fluctuations in other kinds of charitable giving and income, such as yearly donations and gift shop sales. It can alleviate the possibility of dipping into an endowment or cutting back on services and programs. Planned giving is also a way to develop and sustain relationships with donors — and in an increasingly competitive giving environment, nonprofits can’t afford to ignore planned giving programs. Even though organizations don’t immediately receive a planned gift, it is worth the wait.

The reality is that nonprofits can no longer simply ask donors to pony up with cash by writing a check. Donors expect and often demand an array of choices when it comes to helping their favorite nonprofits. Many if not most nonprofits have programs in place to accept planned gifts. But if you’re interested in donating an asset your favorite nonprofit isn’t accustomed to accepting, your best bet is to connect it with an experienced nonprofit attorney to make your gift a reality.

Not all nonprofits are the same when it comes to giving

When we talk about “charitable giving,” it is usually when referring to a particular kind of nonprofit organization. Specifically, organizations formed under 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Service tax code.(Click to the IRS website to check if a possible beneficiary is a qualified 501(c)(3).) A 501(c)(3) can come in many different forms: foundations, charities, churches, community organizations, schools. They all have one thing in common in that they are formed to benefit the general public, not individuals, not for the mutual benefit of their members (such as homeowners associations, and not for political coalitions).

Be aware, however, that not every nonprofit is a 501(c)(3) organization. There are actually 29 types of nonprofits in the U.S. federal tax code, but when it comes to planned giving you can only take a tax deduction if you donate to one that the IRS has conferred 501(c)(3) status. Contributions to non-501(c)(3) groups, charities, and organizations can be valuable to recipients and make you feel good as well. It’s just that the federal government is not going to give you a tax break for your donation. Knowing what you can and can’t claim helps you maximize the potential tax savings that the charitable tax deduction to a 501(c)(3) offers.

Before we discuss what kinds of giving qualify for a tax deduction, here are some that don’t qualify:

Promises and pledges

Let’s say you made a charitable pledge of $150 to a 501(c)(3), but only gave $50 that particular tax year. You can only deduct from your taxes the $50 that you actually donated that year. Once you donate rest of the pledge (the remaining $100) you can deduct that amount for the tax year in which this occurred.

Political support

While it is important to be involved in the democratic process, monetary support is not considered charitable giving. Monies given to political candidates, campaigns, parties, and political action committees (PACs), as well as money spent to host or attend fundraising events, or to purchase advertising, lawn signs, and bumper stickers are not considered charitable giving.

Fundraising and special event tickets

I’m sure you can’t count the number of times you’ve bought raffle or lottery tickets, bingo cards, and partook other kinds of games of chance. These classic and popular fundraising methods support charities and are fun to imagine winning, but you can’t claim a deduction for them.

Personal benefit gifts

The IRS considers a charitable contribution to be one-sided. This means if you receive something in return for your 501(c)(3) donation — from a tote bag to a T-shirt, from a side of beef to a three-course meal — only the amount above the fair market value of the item/service is deductible. Let’s say your neighbor’s child is selling popcorn to raise money for a scouting troop. You buy a bag of popcorn for $10 whose retail value is $6. This amounts to a $4 charitable donation. Similarly, you purchase a $75 ticket to a fundraising dinner sponsored a favorite charity. The dinner would cost you $30 at a restaurant, so your charitable deduction would be $45.

Gifts without proof

Cash placed in your church’s collection plate, dropped into the Salvation Army’s Red Kettle, and handed to a student for a cupcake at a bake sale…these are all worthy donations, but you can’t just guesstimate how much you’ve given and deduct the amount from your taxes. Of course, I believe, you gave, but the IRS demands documentary proof of all cash donations, no matter the amount in order for you to claim the deduction. Proof might be bank records such as a canceled check, a receipt from the nonprofit organization, or a pay stub if the donation was made through a payroll deduction. For single cash donations of more than $250, the IRS requires a statement from the organization.

Gifts to individuals

I’ve seen many successful crowdfunding campaigns to support any number of good causes. Let’s say a friend is raising money for her child’s expensive medical procedure through an online site and you make a donation to help her reach her goal. Or, perhaps your nephew is raising money for a mission trip over the summer and you write him a check for $25. Unfortunately, contributions earmarked for certain individuals (despite their economic, medical, educational or other needs) are not deductible according to the IRS. However, if you donate to a qualified organization that in turn helps your friend or nephew, that contribution would be deductible — although you can’t designate your donation to be directed to that person. Again, a contribution can’t be given directly or indirectly to a specific individual and still be tax-deductible.

Bountiful opportunities for charitable giving

It may seem like there are a lot of kinds of giving and plenty of nonprofits that do not qualify for the tax benefits you’re looking for, but don’t worry!  There is a multitude of ways for you to show your generosity and contribute to a charity that can minimize your estate taxes, bypass capital gains taxes, and receive current tax deductions. Of course, planned giving is not the only kind of giving. Unplanned giving is no less a means of showing your generosity and supporting those organizations whose mission and activities you believe in.

I’d love to discuss your charitable giving goals and options tailored to your individual situation. Don’t hesitate to contact me via email or by phone (515-371-60770).

reading gift acceptance policy article

I love the opportunity to write for the Iowa State Bar Association‘s monthly publication, The Iowa Lawyer. I enjoy even more that you don’t have to be an attorney, judge, or even work in the legal field to read it! I recommend all nonprofit professionals, as well as professional advisors that advise nonprofits, to give my latest piece a read. Entitled “Minding the GAP: Why Every Nonprofit Needs a Gift Acceptance Policy,” the article (on page 24) overviews:

  • what this important policy entails
  • why it’s essential
  • what provisions should be included
  • different types of charitable gifts to consider when drafting the policy

minding the GAP - why every nonprofit needs a gift acceptance policy

That all said, a gift acceptance policy is just one of many policies that each nonprofit should have drafted to fit their unique mission and operations. Other documents to review, adopt, and employ include:

I’m happy to discuss any elements regarding how a gift acceptance policy can help your organization; don’t hesitate to contact me by phone (515-371-6077) or email (gordon@gordonfischerlawfirm.com).

Dollar bill against white background

The Basics

A charitable gift annuity (CGA) is a contract in which a charity, in return for a transfer of assets, such as say, stocks or farmland, agrees to pay a fixed amount of money to one or two individuals, for their lifetime. A person who receives payments is called an “annuitant” or “beneficiary.”

For the entire term of the contract, the payments are fixed. A portion of the payments are considered to be a partial tax-free return of the donor’s gift, which are spread in equal payments over the life expectancy of the annuitant(s).

CGA cycle

Benefits of a CGA

There are at least six key benefits to a CGA:

  1. A CGA provides an immediate income tax charitable deduction to a donor for the gift portion.
  1. A CGA pays a lifetime income to one or two individuals, part of which is (most often) a return of principal and free from income tax.
  1. The income payout from the gift annuity can begin immediately or can be deferred.
  1. The charity’s obligation to pay the annuity is backed by the general assets of charity.
  1. When appreciated property is provided, and the donor is an annuitant, some of the capital gain is spread over donor’s life expectancy, and the rest is never recognized because it is attributed to the gift portion.
  1. A CGA is (relatively) simple to execute.

3 versions of CGA agreements

There are three versions of different CGA agreements depending on to whom the annuity is to be paid to:

  1. A “single life” agreement (annuity paid to only one person for his/her lifetime)
  1. A “two lives in succession” agreement (annuity paid to A, and then if B survives A, paid to B)
  1. A “joint and survivor” agreement (pay annuity paid to two persons simultaneously, and at death of first annuitant, the survivor is paid full annuity amount). This is most commonly used for married couples who file joint tax returns and/or who live in community property states.

Types of CGA agreements

In addition to the three versions there are three main types of CGA agreements that determine when the payments are issued to the annuitants: immediate, deferred, and flexible.

  1. Immediate Gift Annuity

Under an Immediate Gift Annuity, the annuitant(s) start(s) receiving payments at the start/end of the payment period immediately following the contribution. Payments can be made monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or annually.

  1. Deferred Gift Annuity

Under a Deferred Payment Gift Annuity, the annuitant(s) start(s) receiving payments at a future time, the date chosen by the donor, which must be more than one year after the date of the contribution. As with immediate gift annuities, payments can be made monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or annually.

  1. Flexible Annuity

Under a Flexible Gift Annuity (also known as a Deferred Payment Gift Annuity), Donor need not choose the payment starting date at the time of her contribution. The annuitant (who may or may not be the donor) can choose the payment starting date based on her retirement date or other considerations.

Charities That Issue CGAs: The Rules

NOTE: Gift annuities are an exception to the general rule that charities cannot issue commercial insurance contracts. As such, charities which issue gift annuities must comply with several rules, which may be simplified as follows:

  1. The present value of the annuity must be less than 90% of the total value of the property transferred in exchange for the annuity. In other words, the charitable interest must be at least 10%.
  1. The annuity cannot be payable over more than two lives, and the individual(s) must be alive at the time the gift annuity is set up.
  1. The gift annuity agreement cannot specify a guaranteed minimum, nor a maximum, number of annuity payments.
  1. The actual income produced by the property transferred in exchange for the gift annuity cannot affect the amount of the annuity payments.

Rose in hand

CGAs and Tax Considerations

Federal income tax charitable deduction

A charitable gift annuity is considered part gift and part sale, as the donor contributes the property in exchange for annuity payments from the charity. The donor who itemizes may take an income tax charitable deduction for the gift portion (i.e., the value of the transferred property less the present value of the annuity).

This income tax charitable deduction is subject to the same limits as an outright gift of cash or property. For example, if cash is transferred for the CGA, the limitation of the deduction is 50% of the donor’s AGI; if long-term capital gain property is transferred, the limitation is generally 30% of AGI.

Any deduction in excess of the applicable percentage limitation may be carried forward for five years.

watch on wrist

Taxation of payouts

The annuity payments by the charity under a gift annuity are treated for income tax purposes as follows:

  1. Tax-free return of principal
  2. Long-term capital gain
  3. Ordinary income

Let’s break each of these categories down.

Tax-free return of principal

A portion of each payment received by Donor, or another annuitant, is a tax-free return of principal until the cost of the annuity is fully recovered when the annuitant reaches life expectancy.

The assumed cost of the annuity does not include the gift portion of the transaction. The donor’s cost basis must be allocated between the gift and sale portions in accordance with the respective proportions of the value of the property transferred.

Long-term capital gain

If property held for more than one year is transferred for a gift annuity, a portion of each payment will be taxed as LTCG. This will reduce the income tax-free return of principal portion of the annuity payments.

Capital gain is recognized only on the sale portion of the transaction and with the basis allocation previously described. Under general tax rules, long-term capital gain is recognized in the year the property is sold. However, with a charitable gift annuity, the donor may spread the gain over life expectancy provided the donor is the sole annuitant, or the donor and another individual named as a survivor annuitant.

Ordinary income

After the capital gain and tax-free portions of the annuity payment have been determined, the balance of the payment will be taxed as ordinary income.

Gift and estate taxation

giving gift

If the donor is the sole annuitant, there are no gift or estate tax issues because both the annuity is her own and the annuity terminates at death.

If the donor names anyone other than herself as an annuitant, gift and estate tax issues may arise.

Regarding gift tax, if the donor names another person as an annuitant, the gift is the value of the annuity. An exception exists for a spouse under the gift tax marital deduction.

Another alternative to avoid gift tax: the donor could retain the right to revoke when the named annuitant has a survivor interest.

Regarding estate tax, if the donor names another person as an annuitant, the remaining value in the annuity is considered part of the donor’s estate. An exception exists for a joint annuity using only the donor’s life as the measuring life. Of course, there is also an estate tax marital deduction available if the surviving annuitant is a spouse.

Low-interest rates = higher tax-free income

The applicable federal rate (AFR) selection decision is more nuanced for gift annuities than for other split-interest gift tools.

A donor who wants to maximize their deduction will select the highest rate available, but this reduces the overall value of the annuity and increases the amount of the charitable gift.

Conversely, a donor who wants to maximize the income tax-free portion of the annuity payments will select the lowest available rate.

Choosing start date of deferred CGA

Under an immediate charitable gift annuity, annuity payments begin no later than one year after the initial contribution.

calendar on desk

A deferred gift annuity allows the donor to delay the start date of annuity payments. This delay will both increase the annuity amount when payments begin and result in a larger income tax charitable deduction which is available in the year of the contribution (subject, as always, to AGI limits).

A deferred gift annuity can, therefore, produce current tax savings during high-earning years while creating a supplemental retirement income. Generally, Donor sets a date for the deferred gift annuity to begin. However, the IRS approved a deferred gift annuity which did not specify a fixed starting date for the annuity payments [Ltr. Rul. 9743054].

Testamentary Gift Annuity

If carefully planned, it is possible to arrange a charitable gift annuity through a will. It is, of course, crucial that both the bequest amount and annuity payout are made clear by the terms of the will.

coffee mug and computer

A donor considering a testamentary gift annuity should directly address three important questions:

  1. What if the designated annuitant(s) predecease the testator? Donor may want to specify a contingent annuitant or provide for an outright bequest to Charity.
  2. What if the charity no longer exists at death? Or, what if the charity is either unable or unwilling to accept the gift? The donor may want to name a contingent charitable beneficiary.
  3. What about the payout rate? The donor should leave the charity some degree of flexibility in the payout rate, to assure the 10% minimum charitable interest requirement can be met in the future.

You may have many more questions regarding charitable gift annuities and your personal situation. Feel free to contact me any time to discuss how to maximize your gift. I offer a one-hour free consultation, without any obligation. I can be reached any time at my email, gordon@gordonfischerlawfirm.com, or on my cell, 515-371-6077.

I KEEP six honest serving-men
(They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who.– Rudyard Kipling

I’ll use all six “serving men”—what, why, when, how, where, and who, albeit sometimes in slightly different order—to explain three broad topics: (1) estate planning; (2) trusts; and (3) business succession planning. If you’re unsure of any of the three topics listed, this is the blog post for you.

man taking notes in notebook

WHAT is an Estate Plan, Anyway?

What do we talk about when we talk about estate planning? There are six documents that should be part of everyone’s estate plan. Additionally, you should also keep these six documents updated and current. It’s also important you take note of assets with beneficiary designations (such as those on IRAs and bank accounts).

WHO Needs an Estate Plan? Everyone!

Everyone needs an estate plan. If you’re young, healthy, unmarried, have no children, and have no significant or unusual assets, perhaps you could talk me into the idea that you don’t entirely need an estate plan. Even in such exceedingly rare cases, I strongly recommend making sure your beneficiary designations are completed and up-to-date.

For example, beneficiary designations can be found on your checking and savings accounts and on your retirement benefit plan. But, if you’re married, and/or have kids, and/or have significant or unusual assets, and/or own part or all of a business, you most definitely need an estate plan.

WHY Do You Need an Estate Plan?

Estate planning is not exactly material for scintillating conversation. In fact, I’d bet most of us like to avoid this topic because it can be confusing, and requires lots of decision-making. And, yes, it forces one to think about the mortality of loved ones and the self. Estate planning, after all, is a roadmap about what you want to happen after you move on from this life. While it may not be a fun topic, it is indeed a necessary one. If you die without an estate plan, there are several negative consequences.

Without an estate plan, you cannot choose who receives your estate assets.

If you die without a will, you leave the decision of who will receive your property, in what amount, and when up to the Iowa legislature and/or Iowa courts. With this situation, there is always the very real possibility that the distribution of your estate will be greatly different than if you had chosen it through an estate plan.

Without an estate plan, you cannot choose a guardian for your minor children.

If you die without an estate plan, Iowa courts will choose guardians for your children. One of the most important aspects of a will is that it allows you to designate who will be the guardian for your children. This can ensure that your children are cared for by the person that you want, not who the court chooses for you.

Without an estate plan, Iowa courts will choose your estate’s executor.

If you die without an estate plan, the probate court is forced to name an executor. The executor of your estate handles tasks like paying your creditors and distributing the rest of your assets to your heirs. If the probate court has to pick who will be your estate’s executor, there is always a chance that you would not have approved of that person if you had been alive. If you have an estate plan, your will names a trusted executor who will carry out all of your final wishes, pay your bills, and distribute your assets as you intended.

Without an estate plan, you can’t help your favorite nonprofits.

If you die without an estate plan, all your assets— house, savings, retirement plans, and so on—will pass to your heirs at law as specified under Iowa’s statutes. If you have an estate plan, you can include gifts to your favorite nonprofits and see that they are helped for many years to come.

HOW Do You Structure Your Estate Plan?

light bulb on post-it note

Again, there are six basic documents that should be part of everyone’s estate plan:

  1. Estate Planning Questionnaire
  2. Last will and testament
  3. Power of attorney for health care
  4. Power of attorney for finance
  5. Disposition of personal property
  6. Disposition of final remains

We’ll go through each document briefly, so you have a sense of what each entails.

Estate Planning Questionnaire

Estate planning involves facing heavy questions, and depending on the number of assets and beneficiaries you have, may take quite a bit of time and thought. I recommend clients (and even those who aren’t my clients) complete an Estate Plan Questionnaire. An Estate Plan Questionnaire is a simple way to get all of your information in one place and makes it easier for your attorney to build your estate plan.

As with any project, it helps “to begin with the end in mind.” A questionnaire can help get you there.

hand holding orb

Last Will and Testament

Now let’s discuss your last will and testament. In sum, you’ll be answering three major questions:

Q1. Who do you want to have your stuff?

This includes both tangible and intangible things. An example of a tangible item would be your coin collection. An example of an intangible asset would be stocks.

Q2. Who do you want to be in charge of carrying out your wishes as expressed in the will?

The “executor” is the person who will be responsible for making sure the will is carried out as written.

Q.3. If you have kids under age 18: who do you want to take care of your minor children?

You’ll want to designate a legal guardian(s) who will take care of your minor children until they are adults.

Power of Attorney for Health Care

A power of attorney (POA) for health care designates someone to handle your healthcare decisions for you if you become unable to make those decisions for yourself. A healthcare POA can govern any kind of decision that is related to your health that you want to address. A healthcare POA may include decisions related to organ donation, hospitalization, treatment in a nursing home, home health care, psychiatric treatment, and more.

For example, if you don’t want to be kept alive with machines, you can make this clear in your POA for healthcare. But, keep in mind your POA for health care isn’t just about end-of-life decisions, again, it can cover any medical situation.

Power of Attorney for Finance

The power of attorney for financial matters is similar to the health care document just discussed, only your designated agent has the power to make decisions and act on your behalf when it comes to your finances. This gives them the authority to pay bills, settle debts, sell property, or anything else that needs to be done if you become incapacitated and unable to do this yourself.

It might be obvious by now, but I’ll state it just in case: choosing an agent for a power of attorney requires that you think long and hard about who would be best suited for the job and who can be trusted.

woman on laptop on patio

Disposition of Personal Property

Now, let’s get to the disposition of the personal property. This is where you get specific about items you want particular people to have. If you’re leaving everything to one or two people, then you may not need to fill this out. But, if you know you want your niece Beth to have a specific piece of jewelry, and your cousin Karl to have that bookshelf he loved, then you’d say so in this document.

Disposition of Final Remains

The disposition of final remains document is where you get to tell your loved ones exactly how you want your body to be treated after you pass away. It can be as general as simply saying “I want to be cremated and scattered in my garden,” or it can be specific and include details of plots you’ve already purchased or arrangements you’ve already made.

Beneficiary Designations

Along with the six basic estate planning documents, don’t forget about your assets with beneficiary designations.

Common accounts with beneficiary designations include savings and checking accounts, life insurance, annuities, 401(k)s, pensions, and IRAs are all transferred via beneficiary designations. These beneficiary designations actually trump your will!

Regarding assets with beneficiary designations, you must make sure that designations are correctly filled out and supplied to the appropriate institution. Remember to keep these beneficiary designations updated and current.

WHEN Do You Update Your Estate Plan?

Let’s say you’ve gone to an estate planning lawyer, and these six basic estate planning documents have been drafted and signed. What else? You need to keep these documents updated and current. If you undergo a major life event, you may well want to revisit with your estate planning lawyer, to see if this life event requires changing your estate planning documents.

What do I mean by a major life event? Some common events would include:

  • Selling or buying land
  • Birth or adoption of a child or grandchild
  • Marriage or divorce
  • Illness or disability of your spouse
  • Purchasing a home or other large asset
  • Moving to another state
  • Large increases or decreases in the value of assets, such as investments
  • If you or your spouse receives a large inheritance or gift
  • If any family member, or another heir, dies, becomes ill, or is incapacitated

This is just a short list of life events that should cause you to reconsider your estate plan. There are many others; if you think you might have undergone a major life event, check with your estate planning lawyer.

WHERE Do You Keep Your Estate Plan?

You should store your estate planning documents in a safe place, such as a fireproof safe at home, or a safety-deposit box. Another option in our digital era is storage on the “cloud.” Just make sure the important agents under your estate plan—say, for example, the executor of your will, or power of attorney representative—can access the documents if and when the need arises. For most folks, that’s enough: the six documents, keeping the documents current and remembering about those assets with beneficiary designations.

Don’t Forget About Benefiting Charities!

Perhaps most importantly, through proper estate planning, you can help your favorite charities in ways large and small. One common way grantors elect to support the causes and organizations they care about is by naming them as a beneficiary of a certain amount or percentage of the estate’s assets.

Time for a Trust?

Wait a second…what do you mean by “for most folks, that’s enough?” Indeed, for most Iowans what I’ve outlined here is enough. There may be folks who have a high net worth, or who have complex assets (for example, more than one piece of real estate), or own part or all of a robust business, or otherwise have unusual situations. In such cases, a trust may be helpful. That’s considered more “advanced” estate planning and will mean additional conversations and collaboration on what estate planning tools work best for the situation.

See? That wasn’t so bad!

Whether it’s complicated or simple, it does require some thought and time. But, it’s worth the investment. A proper estate plan can save you and your estate costs and fees, help your family and friends, and provide you peace of mind.

Do you have an estate plan? Why or why not? I’d love to hear from you in the comments below. You can reach me at any time at 515-371-6077 or gordon@gordonfischerlawfirm.com.

Everyone has unique needs and thus every estate plan needs to be personalized. Online templates for estate plans won’t cover the nuances of your life, wishes, and assets. The best place to start on your personalized estate plan is with my Estate Planning Questionnaire.

wealthy dollar bills

There is a rumor that has been floating around that only the rich need estate planning. That is extremely false. Everyone needs an estate plan, but the wealthy don’t need estate planning as much as the middle-class and working-class folks. If this contradicts everything you’ve ever thought about estate planning allow me to explain.

The Case of Kingston Lear

Suppose Kingston Lear (get it?!), a wealthy Iowan, decides he doesn’t need a qualified and experienced estate planner, he can do it himself, or use an online, one-size-fits-all service. Hey, Lear figures, this way he’s saving both time and money. Also, nothing is going to happen to him for a while, he can get around to doing a proper estate plan with a proper estate planning professional “someday.”

Of course, “someday” never comes, but Lear’s death does. His three daughters are aghast that Lear has no real estate plan. The template resembling an estate plan is completely inadequate for the size and complexity of Lear’s assets.

A Matter of Trusts

Lear could have easily, with the help of a professional advisor, set up a trust (even a plain, “vanilla” revocable living trust would have worked) to avoid probate. But, the online service he used didn’t even explain the difference between wills and trusts. So, Lear’s assets all must go through probate. This means that the time and money Lear though he was saving is gone in a flash.

Probate Costs and Fees, If You Please

Probate fees are going to equate to at least 2% cut of Lear’s estate. Remember, Lear’s estate is large and complex and valued at $10 million, so the actual figure is probably going to be more like four percent.

Using 4% as the figure for probate fees means a loss of $40,000 ($10 million X .04 = $400,000). This is $400,000 that could have been passed down to his daughters through a trust, or split generously between his heirs and charitable organizations near and dear to Lear’s heart.

Also, court costs may amount to another 1%, or loss of $10,000 more ($10 million X .01 = $100,000).

Loss of Privacy

Another major benefit of a trust—again, not explained to Lear because didn’t seek any individualized advice—is privacy. A will (or most any document that goes through probate, absent very special circumstances) is simply a public document. Anyone can read, copy, share, and write about it.

Consider one of Lear’s major assets was an ongoing business—a Shakespearean-themed jousting complex, where families could have fun practicing jousting.

horses at fence

Unfortunately, in some of the probate papers, it was disclosed that there had been numerous complaints by the Iowa Horse Association about the treatment of horses. It isn’t long until this hits the blogs, and some of the more sensational aspects of the report (though hotly disputed) goes viral. The jousting park, which had been quite profitable, is now eschewed by all the good people of the area. The daughters are forced to sell the business asset to preserve the family’s good name (or what’s left of it) and sell at a loss. While the jousting park had been worth as much as $1 million, the daughters have to sell, so there’s a “paper loss,” but nonetheless less a loss, of another $900,000.

Loss of Future Profits

The $900,000 is a conservative figure; it doesn’t include lost future profits. If not for the scandal becoming public, who knows how long the jousting park could have remained really popular and this profitable. Years? Decades? It’s quite difficult to quantify, but it’s certainly probable that there are some lost profits. The question is: how much?

Costs of Cases

Because Lear’s will wasn’t drafted by professional, there are many ambiguities and loopholes. It’s not long before the three daughters begin fighting and, with unclear direction from their father, they wind up suing each other.

Taking a court case all the way to trial can easily mean $50,000 in attorney’s fees, plus each daughter will want and need her own attorney. So, another $150,000 is lost to attorney’s fees!

Total Losses Equal?

Lear could have had his estate plan done by an Iowa professional for a few thousand dollars. Instead, he lost a total far greater than that:

  • Probate Fees: $400,000
  • Probate Court Costs: $100,000
  • Loss on Sale of Jousting Park: $900,000
  • Loss of Future Profits of Jousting Park: Incalculable?
  • Attorney’s Fees for Daughters’ Litigation $150,000

This is a hit for the inheritance of $1.55 million, leaving $8.5 million (rounded up), or a little less than $3 million per daughter. But you know what? That still leaves an inheritance of $8.5 million to be split amongst three sisters.

The Rich Can Afford Bad Estate Planning

crown silver

Lear acted unwisely, arguably recklessly! A great deal of his money was wasted that could have been used for great charitable work in Iowa through local nonprofit organizations. But, for all his foolishness, Lear’s daughters still end up with $3 million each. Will the daughters incur much suffering with “only” $3 million? No.

That’s the rub; the rich can afford to make big (and small) estate planning mistakes.

You Can’t Afford Poor Quality Estate Planning

Let’s look at this from a normal Iowan perspective. At least 2% in probate costs and fees, a huge drop in value in a key asset, attorney’s fees for litigation…can a middle-class estate merely shrug these kinds of losses off? Not a chance.

The rich aren’t like you and me. They can badly botch estate planning. You and I can’t afford to make mistakes with our estates; there’s no room (and not enough money!) for error.

Need an estate plan but aren’t sure where to start? It’s easy from start to finish. Fill out my obligation-free Estate Plan Questionnaire or contact me.

hands in huddle

Did you know that April is National Volunteer Month? Celebrate and make an impact at the same time by donating your time, energy, and skills to the causes you care most about.

However, unlike the charitable contribution deduction on federal income tax for cash and non-cash assets, the IRS does not count volunteering time as a part of that deduction. However, out-of-pocket expenses relating to volunteering are deductible.

Out-of-pocket expenses are deductible if the expenses are:

  • unreimbursed;
  • directly connected with the services;
  • expenses you had only because of the services you gave; and
  • not personal, living, or family expenses.

Out-of-pocket charitable expenses which might be deductible include the cost of transportation (including parking fees); travel expenses while you are away from home performing services for a charitable organization; unreimbursed uniforms or other related clothing worn as part of your charitable service; and supplies used in the performance of your services.

As with other donations, keep good records…documentation is key!

love your neighbor hat

If you have any questions I would love to be of assistance. (After all, the mission at Gordon Fischer Law Firm is to maximize charitable giving, which certainly includes volunteer time!) Reach out to me at any time via email or by phone (515-371-6077)

Retirement Benefit plans helping charity

Much of Iowans’ wealth can be found in retirement benefit accounts, like IRAs, 401(k)s, 403(b)s, and so on. Funds from retirement benefit plans can be easy and tax-savvy ways for you to support your favorite causes and organizations!

IRA Charitable Rollover

The Individual Retirement Account (IRA) charitable rollover allows individuals aged 70.5 years of age and older to donate up to $100,000 from their IRAs directly to charities, without having to count the distributions as taxable income. This gift transfer is called a qualified charitable distribution (QCD).

To be clear, there are two threshold requirements to take advantage of the IRA charitable rollover. The first is that to be eligible you must be 70.5 years of age or older. An important nuance to note is the required annual distribution is based on the year the participant reaches age 70.5, not the day they reach that age.

The second threshold requirement is the IRA charitable rollover applies to IRAs only. Under the lawcharitable gifts can only be made from traditional IRAs or Roth IRAs. The IRA charitable rollover does not apply to 403(b) plans, 401(k) plans, pension plans, and other retirement benefit plans.

What about younger donors, or people who have different, unique, kind of retirement benefit plans? There are at least a couple of good alternatives to consider.

Required Minimum Distributions

Generally, an account holder must start taking Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs) after age 70½. And, sometimes, much younger folks must take RMDs when they inherit a retirement benefit account. If you’re already having to take RMDs, why not use those funds to support your favorite charity?

There is a (pretty severe) tax penalty if you withdraw funds from a retirement benefit plan too early. But, generally speaking, individuals over 59½ years of age may withdraw funds from retirement plans without any penalty. So, in such cases, a donor can withdraw funds, make a gift with these funds, and then claim an offsetting federal income tax charitable deduction. Keeping in mind that every donor’s situation is unique, in the clear majority of such cases, a charitable gift made in this manner would at the least be tax neutral for the donor.

Beneficiary Designations

No matter what age, no matter what type of retirement benefit plan, there is a very easy way for you to help your favorite charity. Simply name the charity as the beneficiary!

It’s been my experience that many folks don’t consider or realize they can make a meaningful gift by naming a nonprofit as the beneficiary of IRA, 401(k), 403(b), or another plan. This is simple and does not require drafting a will or testamentary trust. (It is true that if the account holder is married, the spouse should be informed and may have to consent to gift).

Keep Beneficiary Designations Current

This is a good time for a  reminder to check your beneficiary designations not only on your retirement benefit plan but on ALL such accounts or funds. Savings accounts, checking accounts, mutual funds, stock portfolios, annuity contracts—all these have beneficiary designations (also sometimes called “payable on death” or “transfer on death”). Are your beneficiary designations current? Or is there an ex-spouse still named as a beneficiary on your IRA? Make sure to keep your beneficiary designations current, and while doing so, consider naming our favorite nonprofits as beneficiary. Your gift could make a tremendous difference.

Contact Me

Of course, there’s always much more to be discussed when it comes to charitable giving. I would love to hear your ideas and charitable giving goals. Don’t hesitate to contact me by phone at 515-371-6077, or email, Gordon@gordonfischerlawfirm.com.