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green beer

In the spirit of St. Patrick’s Day, pour yourself a pint, and read up on some simple, yet smart, charitable giving strategies. Whether you want to support the great work of an Oscar Wilde literary foundation or an Irish heritage association, tools and benefits that align with your charitable giving goals can help to stretch your green and make a difference in the causes you care about.

Top O’ the Morning Giving: Now Rather than Later

four leaf clover

It’s been said, “you should be giving while you are living, so you’re knowing where it’s going,” so let’s explore a few options in the case of a hypothetical Irish Iowan, Sinead O’Sullivan.

Sinead O’Sullivan intends to donate to charity eventually, at death through her will and estate plan. But why not give now? Sinead can have more say about use of gifts while she’s alive, and also feel the joy that comes with helping worthy causes. There are also positive tax benefits for Sinead to give now rather than later. Let’s look at these potential positive tax benefits.

Faith and Begorrah: Double Federal Tax Benefit!

Gifts of long-term capital assets, such as stock, real estate, and farmland [where leprechauns may live!], can receive a double federal tax benefit.

https://www.gordonfischerlawfirm.com/4-benefits-charitable-gifts-stock/

First, Sinead can receive an immediate charitable deduction off federal income tax, equal to the fair market value of the stock, real estate, or farmland. Even with the increased standard deduction under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (which goes into effect for the 2018 tax year), this is still a valuable consideration give the value of  charitable donation would exceed the standard deduction. (It would be especially beneficially if Sinead is considering “bunching” as a tax saving strategy.)

Second, assuming Sinead owned the asset for more than one year, when the asset is donated, Sinead can avoid the long-term capital gain taxes which would have been owed if the asset was sold.

Guinness door

Let’s look at a concrete example to make this clearer. Sinead owns shares of publicly-traded stock in Diageo (Guinness‘ parent producer and distributor company), with a fair market value of $100,000. She wants her stock to help her favorite causes. Which would be better for Sinead (a single taxpayer) to do—sell the stock and donate the cash, or give the stock directly to her favorite charities? Assume the stock was originally purchased at $20,000 (basis), Sinead’s federal income tax rate is 37%, and her capital gains tax rate is 20%.

Donating cash versus donating long-term capital gain assets  Donating cash proceeds after sale of stock Donating stock
Value of gift $100,000 $100,000
Federal income tax charitable deduction ($37,000) ($37,000)
Federal capital gains tax savings $0 ($16,000)
Out-of-pocket cost of gift $63,000 $47,000

NOTE: ABOVE TABLE IS FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY. ONLY YOUR OWN FINANCIAL OR TAX ADVISOR CAN ADVISE IN THESE MATTERS.

Again, a gift of long-term capital assets, such as stocks, real estate, or farmland, made during lifetime, can be doubly beneficial. Sinead can receive a federal income tax charitable deduction equal to the fair market value of the asset and also avoid capital gains tax.

In Iowa, however, there is even more potential tax benefit.

Saints Preserve Us: 25% Iowa Tax Credit

Under the Endow Iowa Tax Credit program, gifts made during lifetime can be eligible for a 25% tax credit. There are only three requirements to qualify.

  1. The gift must be given to, or receipted by, a qualified Iowa community foundation (there’s a local community foundation near you).
  2. The gift must be made to an Iowa charity.
  3. The gift must be endowed – that is, a permanent gift. Under Endow Iowa, no more than 5% of the gift can be granted each year – the rest is held by, and invested by, your local community foundation.

https://www.gordonfischerlawfirm.com/some-things-bear-repeating-the-endow-iowa-tax-credit-program/

Let’s look again at the case of Sinead, who is donating stock per the table above. If Sinead makes an Endow Iowa qualifying gift, the tax savings are very dramatic. There are potentially huge tax benefits of donating long-term capital gain assets, such as stocks, real estate, and farmland, while claiming the Endow Iowa Tax Credit:

Value of gift $100,000
Federal income tax charitable deduction ($37,000)
Federal capital gains tax savings ($16,000)
Endow Iowa Tax Credit ($25,000)
Out-of-pocket cost of gift $22,000

NOTE: ABOVE TABLE IS FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY. ONLY YOUR OWN FINANCIAL OR TAX ADVISOR CAN ADVISE IN THESE MATTERS.

Put another way, Sinead made a gift of $100,000 to her favorite charity, but the out-of-pocket cost of the gift to her was less than $25,000.

This is a great deal for Sinead and a great deal for Sinead’s favorite tax-exempt organizations. But, to be a smart donor you must also of course consider the potential areas of caution as well as the benefits.

Endow Iowa: For Good For Iowa For Ever

Cautionary Ballads

The federal income tax charitable deduction is capped. Generally, the federal charitable deduction for gifts of stock, real estate, and farmland is limited to 30% of adjusted gross income. A taxpayer may, however, carry forward any unused deduction amount for an additional five years.

Additionally, records are required to obtain a federal income tax charitable deduction. The more the charitable deduction, the more detailed the recording requirements. For example, to receive a charitable deduction for certain gifts of more than $5,000, you need a “qualified appraisal” by a “qualified appraiser,” two terms with very specific meanings to the IRS. It’s a wise idea to engage the right financial and legal professionals to be sure all requirements are met.

https://www.gordonfischerlawfirm.com/noncash-gifts-5000-requirements/

Endow Iowa Tax Credits are also capped – both statewide and per individual. Iowa sets aside a pool of money for Endow Iowa Tax Credits, and it’s available on a first-come, first-serve basis. Submitting an application at the beginning of the tax year is advised, as tax credits often run out toward year’s end. In fact, this year approximately $6 million in tax credits were awarded and there are no more available credits to be granted. However, you can submit your application to be placed on the wait list for 2019 tax credits.

Endow Iowa also has a cap per individual. Tax credits of 25% of the gifted amount are limited to $300,000 in tax credits per individual for a gift of $1.2 million, or $600,000 in tax credits per couple for a gift of $2.4 million.

Finally, all individuals, families, businesses, and farms are unique and have unique tax issues.  This article is presented for informational purposes only, not as tax advice or legal advice. Consult your own professional for personal advice.

Sláinte!

 

rainbow

Our case study subject, Sinead, found the pot o’ gold at the end of the charitable giving rainbow by working with a qualified attorney who specializes in complex donations. You may not be in the same tax bracket as Sinead or have stocks valued at the same rate, but regardless, I would recommend to all donors with large gifts (especially assets of the non-cash variety). Want to discuss your giving goals and options for long-term capital assets? I offer a free consult to all, so don’t hesitate to contact me.

Top of the morning to you! On this happy St. Patrick’s Day, let’s discuss a great charitable giving tool that we are lucky to have—the Charitable Remainder Trust (CRT).

On this holiday, we see lots of depictions of green clover. Like most clovers, this series will come in three parts. Today, we’ll discuss the very basics of trusts. In Part Two (coming soon), we’ll discuss all the ins and outs of CRTs. Part Three will feature a simple but powerful case study to illustrate how beneficial—both to donors and donee charities—a Charitable Remainder Trust can be.

Why Are Charitable Remainder Trusts So Grand?

When it comes to the legal tool we call “trusts,” I can be said to be like Molly Bloom, the heroine in James Joyce’s Ulysses:

“[my] heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.”

Why though? What is so great about trusts, anyway?

Trusts come in an almost limitless variety, but some of the key benefits include:

  • Saving taxes
  • Avoiding probate
  • Getting assets to your beneficiaries more quickly and easily
  • Maintaining privacy

Trusts also make challenges to your property more difficult. Since they can be so useful, let’s toast trusts with a pint of Guinness. Sláinte!

Sláinte Scottish Toast

Simplest Terms

In simplest terms, a trust is a legal agreement between three parties: grantor, trustee, and beneficiary. Let’s look at each of these three parties.

Grantor

All trusts have a grantor, sometimes called the “settler” or “trustor.” The grantor creates the trust, and also has legal authority to transfer property to the trust.

Trustee

The trustee can be any person or entity that can take title to property on behalf of a beneficiary. The trustee is responsible for managing the property according to the rules outlined in the trust document, and must do so in the best interests of the beneficiary.

Beneficiary

The beneficiary is the person or entity benefiting from the trust. The beneficiary can be one person/entity or multiple parties (which is also true of grantor and trustee). Multiple trust beneficiaries can have different interests in the trust property. Also, trust beneficiaries don’t have to even exist at the time the trust is created.

Trust property

A trust can be either funded or unfunded. By funded, we mean that property has been placed “inside” the trust. This property is sometimes called the “principal,” “corpus,” or the “res.” By unfunded, we mean that no property has yet been placed inside the trust.

Any Asset

Any asset can be held by a trust. Trust property can be real estate, intangible property, personal property—a farm, building, vacation home, money, publicly traded stocks, closed corporation stocks, bonds, collections (such as say, shamrocks or Guinness mugs), business interests, personal possessions (such as an antique hard owned by Nana), vehicles, and so on.
Glasses of Guinness

“Imaginary Container”

Leprechauns, some may argue, are imaginary. Think of a trust as an “imaginary container.” We speak of putting assets “in” a trust, but assets don’t actually change location. It’s not a geographical place that protects, say, your car, but a form of ownership that holds it for your benefit. For example, on your car title, the owner blank would simply read “The Erin G. Bragh Trust.” It’s common to put real estate such as farms, homes, vacation homes and entire accounts like bank, credit union, and brokerage accounts into a trust.

After the trust is funded, the trust property will still be in the same place before the trust was created—your land where it always was, your car in the garage, your money in the bank, your stamp collection in the study, and so on. But the property will have a different owner: “The Erin G. Bragh Trust,” not Erin G. Bragh.

Transfer of Ownership

Putting property in trust transfers it from personal ownership to the trustee, who holds the property for the beneficiary. The trustee has legal title to the trust property. For most purposes, the law treats trust property as if it were now owned by the trustee. For example, trusts have separate taxpayer identification numbers.

But, trustees are not the full owners of trust property. Trustees have a legal duty to use trust property as provided in the trust agreement and permitted by law. The beneficiaries retain what is known as equitable title, the right to benefit from trust property as specified in the trust.

Assets to Beneficiary

The grantor provides terms in a trust agreement as to how the fund’s assets are to be distributed to a beneficiary. The grantor can provide for the distribution of funds in any way that is not against the law or against public policy.

Almost Limitless Possibilities

The types of trust are almost as limitless as rainbows. Trusts can be classified by their purpose, duration, creation method, or by the nature of the trust property. Next time, let’s look at the specifics of a very helpful trust—the Charitable Remainder Trust. Until then, may the road rise up to meet you!