A cutting edge issue in traditional estate planning is cryptocurrency. “Cryptocurrency” (as defined by Investopedia) is “a digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography for security. A cryptocurrency is difficult to counterfeit because of this security feature. A defining feature of a cryptocurrency, and arguably its most endearing allure, is its organic nature; it is not issued by any central authority, rendering it theoretically immune to government interference or manipulation.”
The most common, and for now the unofficial standard for cryptocurrency (AKA altcoin) is Bitcoin. But the market is getting increasingly more crowded with others including Ripple, Dash, Litecoin, and Zcash to name just a few. (For the purposes of this article, we’ll focus on Bitcoin, but these points could be applied to cryptocurrencies in general.)
Many posts could be written about cryptocurrency, its benefits, and its challenges, but this post is focused on how to account for Bitcoin in your estate plan, as opposed to a standard currency, like the U.S. Dollar.
Acknowledge the IRS’ Perspective
The IRS has determined, at least for the time being, virtual currency is treated as personal property for federal tax purposes. So, virtual currency transactions are most definitely not the same as, say, online banking through your local community credit union. Instead, for general tax purposes, Bitcoin is treated like tangible property you own, like a painting or a car.
Establish the Existence of Bitcoin
Unlike a checking or saving account. there are no beneficiary designations on Bitcoin accounts. In fact, quite the opposite — Bitcoin is anonymous. Therefore, if you were to die without communicating that you have Bitcoin, it will die with you.
For security reasons, of course, you won’t want everyone to know about your ownership of Bitcoin. But you do need to develop a method for passing along the important details to a trusted representative such as your named trustee or executor. This is somewhat similar to accounting for digital assets in your estate plan and many of the same steps/tips apply.
Bitcoin falls into somewhat of a “grey” area outside the realm of a pure digital asset, but it also isn’t a pure financial asset. It might make sense to entrust the existence of Bitcoin to the person you assign to take care of your digital assets, especially if they have a better knowledge base of the what/why/how of cryptocurrency.
Make sure the Bitcoin is Accessible
Unlike a traditional bank account, your executor/trustee can’t just simply contact Bitcoin (as they would your community credit union or bank) after your death. Your agent must have your private key (or username/password depending on the wallet host) in order to access and then distribute the coin as you’ve determined in your estate plan. Again, if you’re the only person who has access to your “wallet,” the Bitcoin will be forever lost in the network. If you’re comfortable with it, you could include your Bitcoin private key on a secure digital archive site like Everplans or, more traditionally, you could keep the key in a safety deposit box.
Plan for the Prudent Investor Act
Many states, including Iowa, have a version of the Prudent Investor Act. (The text of Iowa’s law can be found under the Iowa Uniform Prudent Investor Act.) Under the Act, if you die with a large reserve of Bitcoin, it could be considered an “investment” which the trusted agent could be required to sell and/or diversify. In the face of uncertainty, it’s always better to account for contingencies in your estate plan before your loved ones are faced with a bad scenario. If one of the goals of your estate plan is to grant your executor/trustee the ability to hold your Bitcoin long-term, then it’s wise to include specific language in your will or trust absolving the executor/trustee from liability if they “fail” to diversity your Bitcoin.
Think About Taxes
If your executor/trustee retains your Bitcoin it would not be considered income (at least at the time of this post’s writing). However, if Bitcoin is converted to cash following your passing, it must be declared as income on an estate tax return. Additionally, if your executor were to retain Bitcoin, see it appreciate in value, and then sell it, there is the issue of the capital gains tax. (“The IRS requires American resident taxpayers to report Bitcoin trading income and losses worldwide on U.S. resident tax returns.”) Consider this in your directive of how you would like your Bitcoin to be managed in event of your death.
Fair Market Value: Step Up or Down
The fact that Bitcoin is currently considered personal property means evaluating for either a step-up or step-down in basis given the fair market value on the date of death. (I write more on this in regards to four different types of assets here.)
Let’s consider the hypothetical where Betty inherits 100 Bitcoins (BTC) from Amy. At the time of Amy’s death 1 BTC is worth $50 and when Betty goes to spend 1 BTC, it’s worth $60. That means Betty’s taxable gain on the use of the Bitcoin is $10. How much Amy initially paid for the 100 BTC is irrelevant. Again, the only relevant factor is the fair market value on the date of Amy’s death. It’s wise, as part of your estate planning, to consider your Bitcoin’s depreciation or appreciation to determine how this may affect your heirs. It’s even wiser to discuss your individual situation with professional tax and financial advisors, as well as your estate planning attorney.
Estate Planning is a Must, not an Option
It’s likely we’re going to only see more unique situations, such as that which cryptocurrency presents, in the future. While the future value of Bitcoin may be uncertain, for certain you need an estate plan, and you shouldn’t let your investment die with you. If you already have an estate plan, it’s probably a good time to revisit it to ensure it accounts for assets like Bitcoin. Email me or give me a call (515-371-6077) with questions or to discuss your digital estate planning needs.
Imagine I’m working with a great new client named Daphne. She wants to found a nonprofit organization to assist at-risk youth in her local community and across Iowa. This is a hypothetical memo I would send to Daphne outlining the steps of what it takes to form a nonprofit in the state of Iowa. (Note, if you’re looking to form a 501(c)(3) it’s best work with a qualified attorney for advice and counsel specific to your situation and goals.)
To: Daphne Downright – SENT VIA EMAIL
From: Gordon Fischer (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Subject: How to Form a 501(c)(3) Nonprofit
Date: April 13, 2019
Good afternoon! I very much enjoyed our phone conversation of this morning, where we discussed your intent to begin a nonprofit to assist at-risk youth. Certainly this is an noble mission and I have no doubt that you could make a big impact. I also acknowledge you are very busy and don’t have the time to allocate to dealing with all of the documentation. So, I’m here to take this stress off of your plate!
Let’s recap some details regarding the process for founding a nonprofit organization. These steps will set your public charity up for the best possible success.
Main Steps to a 501(c)(3)
To recap what we talked over, forming a 501(c)(3) involves four steps:
- drafting, editing, and filing articles of incorporation;
- drafting and editing bylaws, with new board members then voting in favor of the bylaws in a duly authorized meeting;
- applying for an Employer Identification Number (EIN); and
- drafting, reviewing, and editing the IRS non-exempt status application, known as IRS Form 1023, as well as all the supporting materials IRS Form 1023 requires.
By far, the most difficult and time-consuming of the four steps is the IRS Form 1023. You should definitely review the form immediately, so you can gain a sense of the level of detail and involvement it requires.
How much does it cost?
While my regular hourly rate can go up to $300 per hour, I often have agreed with clients to perform all the legal work required to successfully begin a nonprofit for a flat fee of $4,800. I typically bill this over the span of five months, i.e., five easy payments of $980, due on, say, the first of each of the months.
Additionally, as you would expect, this matter will necessitate payment of filing fees to governmental agencies, such as the Iowa Secretary of State’s Office and the IRS. (The Iowa Secretary of State has a $20 filing fee, and the IRS 1023 Form has a $850 or $400 filing fee depending on the amount of gross revenue expectations). Of course, clients are solely responsible for payment of all such governmental fees.
How long does this take?
It usually takes a few months to pull all the paperwork together, including and especially Form 1023. I’ve had, however, ambitious clients who wanted to do it much faster, and I was able to accommodate. The flat fee includes as many conferences with me as you reasonably need for us to complete steps 1-4, above.
Benefits of Nonprofit Formation
Daphne, the benefits of a 501(c)(3) are many and include:
Organizations that qualify as public charities under Internal Revenue Code 501(c)(3) are eligible to be completely exempt from payment of corporate income tax. Once exempt from this tax, the nonprofit will usually be exempt from similar state and local taxes.
Even better: if an organization has obtained 501(c)(3) tax exempt status, an individual’s or company’s charitable contributions to this entity are tax-deductible.
Eligibility for public and private grants
Nonprofit organizations can solicit charitable donations from the public. Many foundations and government agencies limit their grants to public charities.
Being able to offer donors income tax charitable deductions for donations, as well as eligibility for public and private grants, are probably the two major reasons folks want to obtain 501(c)(3) status.
A nonprofit organization exists as a legal entity and separate from its founder(s). Incorporation puts the nonprofit’s mission and structure above the personal interests of individuals associated with it.
Under the law, creditors and courts are limited to the assets of the nonprofit organization. The founders, directors, members, and employees are not personally liable for the nonprofit’s debts. There are exceptions. A person cannot use the corporation to shield illegal or irresponsible acts on his/her part. Also, directors have a fiduciary responsibility; if they do not perform their jobs in the nonprofit’s best interests, and the nonprofit is harmed, they can be held liable.
Focus your giving
With charitable giving flowing through a central nonprofit organization, and not through, say, a for-profit business, it’s easier to focus the giving on a singular mission. A for-profit business may be easily pulled away from a charitable mission by the pet causes of lots of different customers, clients, vendors, and employees. A nonprofit should be much less susceptible to such pressure.
Responsibilities of Forming & Managing a Nonprofit
Of course, there are serious responsibilities that come along with creating and running a nonprofit. These can’t be overstated, and include:
Creating a nonprofit organization takes time, effort, and money. Plus, keeping a nonprofit on track, compliant, and successful also requires great care.
A nonprofit is required to keep detailed records and submit annual filings to the state and IRS by stated deadlines to keep its active and exempt status.
Although one who creates a nonprofit may want to shape his/her creation, personal control is limited. A nonprofit organization is subject to laws and regulations, including its own articles of incorporation and bylaws. A nonprofit is required to have a Board of Directors, who in turn determine policies.
Scrutiny by the public
A nonprofit is dedicated to the public interest, therefore its finances are open to public inspection. The public may obtain copies of a nonprofit organization’s state and federal filings to learn about salaries and other expenditures. Nonprofits must be transparent in nearly all their actions and dealings.
Continue the discussion
I hope this information is helpful to you as you begin this journey. It won’t always be easy (although I will attempt to make it as simple as possible for you!), but it will be worthwhile.
I would enjoy the opportunity to be of service to you. Thank you for your time and attention. If you have any questions or concerns, please contact me. As I told you this morning, I offer anyone/everyone a free one-hour consultation. Simply reach out to me anytime via my cell, 515-371-6077, or my email, email@example.com.
Gordon Fischer Law Firm, P.C.
Most people have Tax Day earmarked in their minds like a birthday or federal holiday (typically it’s April 15, although it can vary year-to-year). Nonprofit leaders should have another day highlighted on their calendars for the next few years: when the annual reporting return, Form 990, is due.
Tax-exempt nonprofit organizations don’t pay federal taxes (obviously from the “tax-exempt” category), but the IRS still requires certain information in order to evaluate organizations on details like programs, finances, governance, and mission. It’s a way of confirming that tax-exempt entities are still qualified to operate without paying federal taxes. Form 990s are also made available to the public so there’s also accountability and transparency involved.
So, when is Form 990 due exactly? It depends on the end of your organization’s taxable year; the form is due the 15th of the fifth month after the organization’s taxable year. For most tax-exempt organizations that follow the typical calendar year (January 1 through December 31), this means Form 990 is due on May 15th every year.
What happens if there’s a failure to file?
Just like if you fail to file your income taxes there are repercussions, if an organization is required to file Form 990 and fails to for three consecutive years, the IRS will automatically revoke tax-exempt status. That’s right, no questions, no appeal process, just revocation in accordance with the law. Timely submission of Form 990 also can help your nonprofit organization avoid filing additional documents and certain user fees.
What happens if tax-exempt status is revoked?
If your nonprofit’s tax-exempt status is revoked, then the organization will have to pay corporate income tax on annual revenue. Additionally, the organization may be subject to penalties and back taxes if the revocation date was in the previous tax year. The nonprofit will then lose any state tax exemptions that were dependent on federal tax-exempt status. (Common examples of such state tax exemptions are property, income, and sales/use taxes.) Of course, the organization will no longer be able to receive tax-deductible charitable contributions and, accordingly, donors will no longer be able to receive the federal income charitable deductions for any gifts post-revocation date. Losing tax-exempt status will also disqualify the nonprofit from receiving many private foundations’ grants.
Be prepared for the filing date!
Form 990 is over 10 pages (not including additional schedules and written attachments), so no doubt your organization should have a jump start on the process. The best way to be prepared, year after year, is to have updated and applicable policies asked about on the form readily available to be referenced. I’m offering a great deal that features 10 policies related to Form 990 for $990. The rate includes a comprehensive consultation and full review round.
Minneapolis, Minnesota may have the Final Four, but Iowa has such generous tax benefits for charitable gifts. In fact, in Iowa, donors can receive four amazing tax benefits for charitable gifts. Your March Madness bracket may be busted already, but these benefits are ones you can bank on.
Appreciated, long-term property
For donors and potential donors, the ideal asset for charitable donations will depend on a whole range of factors. But, when donating to charity, one type of asset to seriously consider is appreciated, long-term property. Common examples of such property would include publicly traded stock, real estate, and farmland. First, a couple of terms to be clear on:
- Appreciated: simply means increased in value.
- Long-term: property held for more than one year (e.g., 366 days).
Give now, rather than later
The four tax benefits I’ll outline are only available when the charitable gifts are made during a lifetime. It’s been said, “You should be giving while you are living, so you’re knowing where it’s going.” Many Iowans have philanthropic intentions to donate to their favorite causes eventually, usually at death through their estate plan, will, and testamentary trust. Why not give now? You can have more say about your charitable gifts while you are still alive, and also feel the joy that comes with helping the causes you care about most. Again, there are also lots of good tax reasons for giving now rather than later.
Benefits of gifting appreciated, long-term property
While not celebrated as much as the Final Four, there are four genuinely exciting tax benefits for charitable gifts of appreciated, long-term property.
Double Federal Tax Benefit
When you gift appreciated, long-term property (ALTP) to a charity during lifetime, you may receive a double federal tax benefit. First, you can receive an immediate charitable deduction on your federal income tax, which is equal to the fair market value of the property. Second, assuming, of course, you have owned the property for more than one year, when you donate the property, you avoid the long-term capital gain taxes you would have owed if you sold the property.
Let’s look at a concrete example to make this clearer. Pat owns appreciated, long-term property (such as stocks, real estate, or farmland) with a fair market value of $100,000. Pat wants to use the property to help favorite causes in the local community. Which would be better for Pat–to sell the property and donate the cash, or give the property directly to favorite charities? Assume that the property was originally purchased at $20,000 (basis), Pat’s income tax rate is 35%, and the capital gains tax rate is 20%.
Note: This table is for illustrative purposes only. Only your own financial or tax advisor can advise your personal situation on these matters.
Again, a gift of appreciated, long-term property, made during your lifetime, is doubly beneficial. You receive a federal income tax charitable deduction equal to the fair market value of the property. You also avoid the capital gains tax. In Iowa, there is even a greater potential benefit. You may receive a 25% state tax credit for such charitable gifts, lowering the after-tax cost of your gift even further.
25% Endow Iowa Tax Credit
Under the Endow Iowa Tax Credit program, gifts during lifetime can be eligible for a 25% tax credit. There are three requirements to qualify.
- The gift must be given to, or receipted by, a qualified Iowa community foundation.
- The gift must be made to an Iowa charity.
- The gift must be endowed—that is, a permanent gift. Under Endow Iowa, no more than 5% of the gift can be granted each year. The rest is held by and invested by a local community foundation.
Let’s look again at the case of Pat, who is donating appreciated, long-term property per the table above. If Pat makes an Endow Iowa qualifying gift, the tax savings are very dramatic:
Note: This table is for illustrative purposes only. Only your own financial or tax advisor can advise your personal situation on these matters.
Pat gave a significant and generous gift to a charity of $100,000. But using the Endow Iowa Tax Credit, coupled with the federal income tax charitable deduction and capital gains savings, the after-tax cost of the gift of $100,000 is less than $20,000. Plus, because the gift was endowed, it will be invested by Pat’s local community foundation and will presumably grow through its investment. Thus, it will continue benefiting the charities Pat cares about most!
Note again Pat’s huge tax savings. In this scenario, by giving appreciated, long-term property during lifetime, Pat receives $35,000 as a federal charitable deduction, avoids $16,000 of capital gains taxes, and gains a $25,000 state tax credit, for a whopping total tax savings of $76,000.
Gift Tax Considerations
Areas of Caution
Going back to our example, this is a great deal for Pat and a great deal for Pat’s favorite causes. But, could anything go wrong with this scenario? There are a few areas of caution.
Charitable Deduction Capped
The federal income tax charitable deduction is capped. Generally, the federal charitable deduction for gifts of an appreciated, long-term property is limited to 50% of your adjusted gross income (AGI) to public charities and 30% of AGI to private foundations. You may, however, carry forward any unused deduction amount for an additional five years.
Endow Iowa Capped
Endow Iowa Tax Credits are also capped both statewide and per individual. Iowa sets aside a pool of money for Endow Iowa Tax Credits and it is first come, first served. In 2018, approximately $6 million in tax credits were available annually through Endow Iowa. This means it’s not only is it important to make your gift but to fill out and return your Endow Iowa application as quickly as possible. Donors who do not receive tax credits in the year the gift is made will be first in line for the new supply of the next tax year’s credits. (Here’s the 2019 Endow Iowa Tax Credit Application.)
There is also a cap on Endow Iowa tax credit per individual. Tax credits of 25% of the gifted amount are limited to $300,000 in tax credits per individual for a gift of $1.2 million, or $600,000 in tax credits per couple for a gift of $2.4 million (if both are Iowa taxpayers). (Since the inception of the Endow Iowa Tax Credit Program, Iowa Community Foundations have leveraged more than $215 million in permanent endowment fund gifts!)
IRS Requirements for Non-Cash Gifts
Additionally, to receive a charitable deduction for non-cash gifts of more than $5,000, you need a “qualified appraisal” by a “qualified appraiser,” two terms with very specific meanings to the IRS. You need to engage the right professionals to be sure all requirements are met. A notable exception to the appraisal requirement is appreciated long-term, publicly traded stock.
Advice Needs to be Individualized
Finally, all individuals, families, businesses, and farms are unique and have unique tax issues. This article is presented for informational purposes only, not as tax advice or legal advice. Make a fast break to consult a legal professional for personal advice.
When you first read the headline to this blog post you might have been (rightfully) confused. A private foundation is a type of 501(c)(3), so isn’t this type of nonprofit tax-exempt from federal income tax? This is just one of the nuances of private foundations that can make forming and managing them complicated. Previously I’ve covered other aspects about the private foundation that are important for foundation leaders to understand including avoiding jeopardizing investments, prohibited grants, self-dealing, and payout requirements. Today let’s shine the learning spotlight on excise taxes.
Tax Exempt, But…
Even though private foundations are exempt from income tax, they are subject to an annual 2% excise tax on the income they earn on their net investment income. (This is often referred to as the private foundation excise tax.) The purpose of collecting this revenue is to fund IRS oversight of the nonprofit sector.
Can you Reduce the Tax?
In certain circumstances, the excise tax can be reduced to 1%. The tax is reduced in situations where a foundation’s distributions (measured as a percentage of assets) in a given tax year exceed the average payout rate of the foundation over the preceding five years, by an amount at least as much as the 1% tax savings the foundation will obtain. This is called the “maintenance of effort test” and was implemented to make certain that tax savings are being used for added charitable expenditures as opposed to being “pocketed” by the foundation.
Managing & Administering
Managing and administering the private foundation excise tax can be difficult and complicated, particularly because of the two-tier tax structure. This can also be challenging in decision-making because it somewhat discourages foundations to consider increasing gift for unanticipated grants, such as in the case of a natural disaster or other relief efforts. To comply with the private foundation excise tax requires staff to constantly monitor and adjust spending and savings in order to calculate the correct tax rate.
How to Prepare Your Private Foundation
I highly recommend enlisting an attorney well-versed in private foundation operations in order to stay on top all requirement and avoid detrimental missteps. You may also want to consider implementing training for foundation board members. It’s also a good idea to implement sound policies and procedures and update them when necessary as the foundation evolves and circumstances change.
When forming a nonprofit organization, at some point founder have to weigh the merits of the public charity versus the private foundation. Both are classified by the IRS as 501(c)(3)s. There are indeed benefits and challenges to the structure of both nonprofits, but private foundations can be subject to stricter oversight and need to meet different requirements to retain compliance. Because all the different aspects of a private foundation can be difficult to parse out together, it’s helpful to break it down. We’ve covered self-dealing and now it’s time to explore the payout requirement for private foundations.
Unlike public charities, private foundations are required to spend a minimum amount—called a qualifying distribution—for grants, administration, and other charitable distributions every year, or pay a penalty. The amount of the qualifying distribution is equal to 5% of the fair market value of the foundation’s assets during that year.
The following are considered permissible for qualifying distribution payments:
- Costs of all direct charitable activities
- Program-related investments and loans
- Administrative expenses necessary for the conduct of its charitable activities
- Asset purchases for carrying out charitable activities (such as furniture or computers)
- Program-related investments and loans
If a private foundation fails to make a qualifying distribution, the IRS imposes a hefty penalty (a 30% excise tax) on the funds a private foundation fails to distribute.
The More You Know
An important caveat to the qualifying distribution requirements is that a foundation may elect to set aside funds for up to 5 years for certain major projects. Furthermore, excess qualifying distributions may be carried forward for a period of five tax years immediately following the tax year in which the excess was created.
Foundation managers should be aware that while the penalty is imposed on the foundation, individuals may also be charged penalties on the grounds s/he failed to exercise fiduciary duties.
Let a Lawyer Help
With all of that said, this is why it’s a smart (even essential) idea to enlist an attorney well-versed in the intricacies of nonprofit law to serve as a guide at different steps throughout the life cycle of a private foundation, from formation to board building, to continued compliance.
Questions? Want to learn more about how to make certain your private foundation is set up for success from the start? Don’t hesitate to contact me for a free consultation. You can also download my free, no-obligation nonprofit formation guide!
Any good attorney worth their weight will advise you on multiple aspects of any given important action or decision. Let’s say you’re considering forming a new 501(c)(3). You may have thoroughly considered all the prospective benefits of a tax-exempt entity, but what about the responsibilities? Indeed, there are serious obligations that come along with creating and running a nonprofit. These can’t be overstated and should certainly be taken into account. Let’s dive into a few of them.
Establishing a nonprofit organization does require a monetary cost including the filing fees to governmental agencies, such as the Iowa Secretary of State’s Office and the IRS. (The Iowa Secretary of State has a $20 filing fee, and the IRS 1023 Form has a current user filing fee of $600.) If you elect to hire a qualified nonprofit attorney to guide you through the formation process and draft the required forms, then that will be an additional cost. (Although I would always argue a worthwhile one!)
Once the nonprofit is formed you’ll also want to invest in keeping your nonprofit organization on track, compliant, and successful. A major part of this is drafting and implementing quality internal and external policies and procedures. Again, a nonprofit lawyer can be a valuable asset and provide expertise here.
Cost of time & effort
On top of the monetary costs, there are additional costs of time and effort. It typically takes a few months to pull all the paperwork together for the formational documents—especially the lengthy Form 1023. After all the paperwork is submitted for IRS review, actual 501(c)(3) approval can vary in the time it takes. A submitted Form 1023 can take anywhere from a month or two to a year to make its way through the review process; the 1023EZ‘s turnaround time depends on the backlog of review at the time.
Even after all of the required documentation is submitted for recognition of exemption, the IRS may request additional information through follow-up questions and supporting materials. And, of course, actually operating the nonprofit will take significant, continuous time and effort which can range in extent, but can include new employee hires, nonprofit board orientations and training, and compliance with state and federal laws (like Sarbanes-Oxley, for instance).
The flip side of this is that nonprofit work is often incredibly rewarding and important, making the effort and time even more worthwhile. But, again, it’s something good to just keep in mind as you weigh all inputs to your nonprofit formation decision.
A nonprofit is required to keep detailed records and also submit annual filings to the state and IRS by particular deadlines to keep its active and exempt status. (Reminder: having well-written policies and procedures will make the annual filings, like Form 990, an easier process!)
As an incorporator of a nonprofit, you will certainly have a say in the development of the organization. Although one who creates nonprofits may want to shape his/her creation, personal control is limited. A nonprofit organization is subject to laws and regulations, including its own foundational documents such as articles of incorporation and bylaws. An Iowa nonprofit is required to have a board of directors, who have certain legal and financial fiduciary duties to uphold. The board itself also has collective responsibilities, so no one person is held solely accountable. Board orientation, trainings, and materials—like a board handbook—organized in a specific way can go a long way toward ensuring the board is set-up for success in working toward the mission you as the founder envisioned.
Scrutiny by the public
In the eyes of the government and society alike, the nonprofit must be dedicated to the public interest in one area or another. This is where it derives its tax-exempt status. It’s also why its finances are open to public inspection. For these reasons, nonprofits must be steadfastly transparent in nearly all their actions and dealings.
Interested parties may obtain copies of a nonprofit organization’s state and federal annual information filings to learn about salaries, program expenditures, and other financial information. You should be able to view copies of exempt organizations’ forms for free on the IRS’ website, or you can request a copy from the organization and they must provide it. Additionally, to make it easy for the public, many nonprofits link to these documents on their website. The information can be useful to current and prospective donors, new board members and employees, and grant-making organizations.
These responsibilities shouldn’t scare you off from forming your change-making organization, but rather important elements to be aware of from the beginning. Plus, if you know the big picture of what you’re getting into, you can plan by enlisting the appropriate professionals to help you with your endeavor!
Want to discuss how to move forward with your nonprofit? Don’t hesitate to take me up on my offer for a free consult and the 10 For 990 policy special! Contact me via email or by phone (515-371-6077).
Typically when you think of a nonprofit you generally think of a public charity. However, private foundations (and private operating foundations) are also 501(c)(3) organizations under the IRS’ classification system. Understanding the difference between the different tax-exempt organization is key because, while public charities and private foundations have much in common, there are also major differences. The most important of these differences to understand is that private foundations are subject to much stricter regulations and oversight than public charities.
Because this can get complicated in this post let’s just cover private foundations and the rules related to “self-dealing.”
Look to the Code
Section 4941 of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) and related regulations prohibit any direct or even indirect financial transaction between a private foundation and virtually every person closely associated with it, who are known as “disqualified persons.”
The IRS code is quite specific as to who “disqualified persons” are—and they can be individuals, as well as legal entities, trusts, and even other foundations; it’s a very wide net.
Disqualified persons include:
- Any substantial financial contributors to the foundation
- Officers, directors, trustees, or persons who can act on behalf of the organization
- All family members, including spouses, children, grandchildren, and spouses of children of individuals described above
- Controlled entities (e.g., a corporation of which disqualified persons own more than 35% of the combined voting power)
- Certain government officials
Simply put, if a person has influence over the decisions of the private foundation or a particular relationship with it, it’s extremely likely that they are a “disqualified person.”
Specifically Prohibited Self-Dealing Acts
Self-dealing occurs when a disqualified person acts in his or her own financial interest, rather than in the best interest of the private foundation he or she serves.
The IRS code lists these six (6) specific acts of prohibited self-dealing:
- The sale, exchange, or leasing of property
- The lending of money or other extensions of credit
- The furnishing of goods, services, or facilities
- Payment, compensation, or reimbursement of expenses
- Transfer to, or use by, or for the benefit of, a disqualified person of any income or assets of the foundation
- An agreement to pay a government official
As you can see, rules against self-dealing are quite expansive when it comes to financial transactions.
Exceptions to Self-Dealing Rules
Like most areas of the law, there are exceptions to the self-dealing rules for private foundations. But great care must be taken because they are relatively narrow and require both skill and care to use.
Exceptions to self-dealing rules include:
- A disqualified person can make a loan to a private foundation with no interest or charge if the funds are used exclusively for purposes related to the foundation’s charitable goals;
- A disqualified person can enter into a no-rent lease with a foundation or otherwise make its facilities available free of charge;
- Compensation and reimbursement of expenses for services provided by disqualified persons are permissible if the amount is both reasonable and necessary to carry out the foundation’s charitable goals;
- Certain scholarship, travel, and pension payments to government officials are allowed.
Common Problem areas
There are several self-dealing hazards for private foundations. The most common include:
- Allowing the foundation to satisfy a personal pledge of a disqualified person with foundation dollars is considered self-dealing.
- The foundation’s purchase of event tickets for a disqualified person unless the disqualified person attends a grantee’s event in order to evaluate the charity’s activities.
Family member expenses
- Family members of disqualified persons are considered disqualified persons, so allowing a foundation to pay their expenses is considered self-dealing if they don’t have foundation duties to justify payment of their expenses.
- If a company devotes office space, staff, or other resources to a private foundation it establishes, the private foundation must keep meticulous records to avoid self-dealing.
Protect Your Private Foundation with a Team of Advisors
If you’re thinking about forming a private foundation, I highly recommend you see the advice of an attorney well-versed in the nuances of nonprofit law. The info in the blog is, at best, a mere outline of the complex and stringent laws governing private foundations. That said, forming and growing a private foundation can be immensely rewarding to the communities and causes you want to serve. To best execute, it’s wise to build up a team of knowledgable professional advisors that can safely guide the way through the legal hoops.
Employment policies are vital to the well-being of your nonprofit. Such policies set workplace expectations, define work guidelines, reduce or eliminate confusion and misunderstanding, and provide steps for any necessary disciplinary action. Because every nonprofit organization is unique, your organization may well need a particular set of specific policies. However, the following are the general ones that benefit most all nonprofits.
Benefits of Employment Policies
An official set of employment policies provides many benefits for your nonprofit. For nonprofit employers, policies capture the values you wish to instill in your workforce, outline the standards of behavior you expect, and provide a clear guide for rights and responsibilities.
Instituting strong, fair, and unambiguous policies not only contributes to a happier workforce it can also improve employee retention. Further, employment law is vast, complicated, and can be tricky to navigate. Well-drafted employment policies can also help you avoid legal issues and costly mistakes.
Employee handbooks are not required by law, but having one is in the best interest of your nonprofit and those who work for you— even if you have just one employee! A good employee handbook effectively communicates the nonprofit’s policies and procedures and makes clear the rights and responsibilities of employees in your organization. Many disputes can be avoided by a clear, easy-to-read, and straightforward employee handbook.
Not to be confused with the handbook, an employment agreement sets the conditions, terms, and obligations between you as the employer and an employee. Employment agreements often include details regarding salary, benefits, paid time off, work schedule, mandatory mediation/arbitration, and defining the at-will employment relationship. Employment agreements need to be individualized to suit each employment relationship. It is considered a binding contract that should be administered in writing and signed by both employer and employee.
Formal Performance Review
Formal performance reviews are an assessment of an employee by a supervisor and the employee themselves. It’s a two-way, not a one-way discussion! The review should be based on jointly pre-determined goals and performance objectives. While often overlooked (and sometimes dreaded), performance reviews are of great value to nonprofit employers and their employees.
You should have in place a standardized form and consistent processes for conducting individual performance reviews of all employees. Evaluating the quality of an individual’s work, ability to meet goals, communication skills, adherence to your nonprofit’s mission, attendance, and dependability, among other criteria, is key to effective workforce management and to building trust with employees. You may also consider whether performance reviews for board members would be advantageous to the organization.
Employee Personnel File
A personnel file is a hard copy folder and/or digital file that contains information related to every new, existing, and former employee. Knowing what needs to be stored (and what should not) in a secure personnel file will help your nonprofit in promotion and termination decisions; provide a means of tracking vacations, training, and achievements; and is necessary to comply with regulations.
A personnel file should only contain items related to his or her job or employment status. These include, but are not limited to:
- Application and resume
- Signed acknowledgment page from the employee handbook
- Pay information including time sheets, W-4s, and withholding forms
Just as important as having the right information in a personnel file, is to avoid placing the wrong documents in a personnel file. Some items that should not be in an employee’s personnel file include:
- Medical information and accommodation requests
- Whistleblower complaints
- Court orders, such as garnishment or restraining orders
Independent Contractor Agreement
Self-employed, freelancer, consultant…people who provide goods or services to your nonprofit, but are not your employees, are considered independent contractors. Independent contractors differ from employees in that they control their financial and work-related relationships and pay their own self-employment, Social Security, and Medicare taxes.
When you hire an independent contractor, you should have a written and signed contract that clearly outlines the scope of work, rate/payment, severability, deliverables, and clearly identifies the person as an independent contractor. Also, you can minimize and avoid legal liability by placing the right provisions in an independent contractor agreement.
Updating Employment Policies & Additional Policies You Need
If you already have some (or even all) of the above-listed employment policies in place, when were they last updated? Think about the many ways your organization has changed since they were written, including new employees you hired and existing employees whose roles have evolved.
Changes to state and federal laws may have rendered some elements of your employment policies incomplete or out of compliance. It may be high time to renew your commitment to a productive, happy workplace by revising employment policies.
Also, be aware this memo discusses only employment policies. To work toward optimal IRS compliance, you should adopt the nine key policies and procedures which appear on IRS Form 990. Also, you should consider having documents in place relating to the organization’s ethics, grantors and grantees, endowment management, and legal training for board directors.
To discuss further, please don’t hesitate to contact me via email (firstname.lastname@example.org) or on my cell phone (515-371-6077). I’d be happy to speak more to the particulars of employment policies, with you at your convenience.